The town is situated along the east bank of the South Platte River at the intersection of U.S. Highway 85 and State Highway 66.
The Fort St. Vrain Generating Station, originally a nuclear power plant and now operating as a natural gas powered electricity generating facility operated by Xcel Energy, is approximately one-quarter-mile northwest of Platteville.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Platteville has a total area of 2.527 square miles (6.54 km2), all of it land.
Elevation 4,813 ft (1,467 m)
ZIP code 80651